Ukraine: weather conditions and the condition of winter crops in February 2019 of the year

The current calendar winter has not brought special and, as often happens, unwanted surprises grain producers in the form of severe frosts and lack of snow on the fields, presence of crusts or ice thaws long. Except for a brief reduction temperature characteristics during hibernation (on some days up to -10,6 ... -14 ° C), mean air temperatures are preferably in the range of -1,8 ° to -4,6 ° C, which was significantly higher, than the average long-term value. For the past winter months the characteristic feature was also an increased amount of precipitation (+16% the norm), which have been observed in the form of snow and rain. With the minor exception, a similar trend has been observed for several years in a row.

Hydrothermal conditions winters 2014/15-2018/19 gg.

Winter season

Month

The average

December

January

February

Air temperature, ° WITH

2014/15

-2,3

-2,5

-0,9

-1,9

2015/16

+0,4

-6,1

+2,3

-1,1

2016/17

-3,8

-5,6

-3,7

-4,4

2017/18

+4,0

-3,0

-2,6

-0,5

2018/19

-1,6

-3,4

-1,8

-2,3

The average

-0,7

-4,1

-1,3

The average long-term rate

-2,3

-5,9

-4,5

-4,2

rainfall, mm

2014/15

47,5

28,8

46,5

122,8

2015/16

30,7

61,5

29,8

122,0

2016/17

29,8

37,6

21,9

89,3

2017/18

51,2

57,0

36,3

144,5

2018/19

72,4

59,8

5,8

138,0

The average

46,3

48,9

29,9

The average long-term rate

49

41

29

119

Generally, The past winter, given the hydrothermal regime, It turned out to be quite favorable for winter grains and rapeseed, it also causes moderate soil temperatures (especially at the depth of tillering nodes of winter grain crops), slight freezing of the soil and sufficient snow cover on its surface.

As expected, It turned out to be the coldest in January , when the average temperature was -3,4 ° C, which was at 2,5 ° C above the long-term average norm. However, it turned out to be rather difficult weather conditions in the third decade, when the average daily temperature decreased to -7.2 -10 ° C ..., and the soil surface is cooled to -17,4 ... -18,3 ° C. At the same time, significant snow (20-24 cm) prevented the penetration of cold in tillering nodes winter cereals, the soil temperature at a depth of occurrence of which was not below -1,5 ° C. Wherein, According to calculations, the critical temperature of freezing winter wheat by the end of January amounted to -15.9 ° C.

Average rainfall for the third decade of January was 30,4 mm, and in general in the past month - 59,8 mm, that was respectively 18,4 and 18,8 mm longer than the average long-term rate.

Determination of the viability of the plant winter crops, which was held in late January (25.01) and at the beginning of the second decade of February (23.02), revealed, that the vast majority of winter wheat and barley plants were in good condition, that is, their viability as a function of culture, precursor and date of sowing was within 97-99% (rice. 1).

rice. 1. Appearance of winter wheat plants in monoliths, selected 23.02.2019 g.

The same applies to the crops of winter rape. Even in the late winter crops resistance of plants to low temperatures were quite high, which was confirmed by the results of field and laboratory tests.

For winter wheat and winter crops other oscillation temperature during hibernation, usually, have negative, since the resistance of plants to low temperature, therefore, can significantly weaken. These are the weather conditions were observed in the first decade of February. If at the beginning mean air temperature was in the range 0,1-3,9 ° C, then subsequently cooling it - mean air temperature dropped to -1.4 ... -2.4 ° C.

Generally, in early February, it continues to hold a relatively warm for this time of year the weather. The average temperature during the first ten days of February was 0,2 ° C, which was at 4,7 ° C above the long-term average norm. On some days, a maximum air temperature rose to + 7,4 ° C, and the minimum reduced to -3,7 ° C, snow surface was heated up to + 4 ° C, and at night it cooled to -3,9 ° C.

Precipitation was only 0,9 mm at a rate of long-term 9 mm, that is, 10 times less than. In the southern and some central regions of the country due to warming, which was observed in the first half of the decade, happened quite intensive snow melting, that in the last days of the reporting period is completely gone. It should be noted, that almost all of the moisture due to the melting snow slight freezing of the soil is not lost, He remained in it and gradually localized in the deeper horizons. The freezing of the soil ranged from 9 to 14 cm, Minimal soil temperature at the depth of winter wheat tillering node in the coldest days decreased only to 0,5-0,7 ° C frost. At the same time, According to calculations, the critical temperature of freezing winter wheat 10 February was -16,2 ° C.

Taking into account the weather conditions, condition of crops of winter crops was described as good and satisfactory by the end of the decade.

The second ten days of February has the most warm for winter weather. The average daily temperature was in the range of -1,5 ° C to + 4,5 ° C. On some days, a maximum air temperature rose to + 10,5 ° C, and the minimum reduced to -7,3 ° C, soil surface was heated up to + 16,4 ° C, and at night it cooled to -7,9 ° C.

The average temperature was 1 ° C, that was 5 ° C above the long-term average. fallout 2,9 mm at a rate of long-term 14 mm. By the end of the decade of the soil does not exceed the freezing 8 cm, and soil temperature at the depth of winter wheat tillering node was -1,2 ° C, whereas the calculated critical temperature of the freezing plant -13,1 ° C.

by the way, at least 5 consecutive years minimum soil temperature at the depth of tillering nodes winter cereals was significantly above the critical temperature and freezing plants did not exceed -9 ° C, noted that only in the first week of January 2015/16 growing year, and once again confirms the cogency of global warming.

The minimum temperature of the soil at the depth node winter wheat tillering, WITH

Year

Month, ten-day period

December

January

February

1

2

3

1

2

3

1

2

3

2014/15

-3,8

-0,2

-1,6

-8,0

-0,6

-0,5

-2,5

-7,5

-0,3

2015/16

-1,0

-5,0

-3,8

-9,0

-0,8

-5,7

-2,0

-1,1

-0,1

2016/17

-4,5

-6,2

-3,7

-3,6

-4,7

-4,4

-4,4

-2,4

-0,8

2017/18

-0,3

-0,4

-1,0

-1,5

-5,7

-3,9

-2,0

-1,7

-5,7

2018/19

-3,6

-3,4

-2,6

-1,2

-1,2

-1,5

-0,7

-1,2

-4,1

Determination reserves of available moisture in soil, which took place at the beginning of the second decade of February, revealed, that the amount of moisture under agronomically valuable crops of winter wheat, after all predecessors in the meter layer is from 181 to 193 mm, What's on 2-17 mm greater than the average long-term average. Moreover, the main moisture reserves were at a depth of 50-100 cm. At the same time, in the upper soil layers, its amount was slightly less than the long-term average, due to the prolonged absence of rainfall productive during the third decade of January - first decade of February.

Due to the favorable temperature, which was celebrated for the first half of February, plants winter crops resumed life processes, which manifested itself in a slight regrowth of above-ground mass (1,5-2 mm / day), the root system, to change the color of the leaf blades and, in turn, evidence of the functioning of photosynthesis (rice. 2).

rice. 2. The intensity of regrowth of the leaf blades of winter wheat in the first and second decade of February 2019 g.

At this time, feeding crops were launched in most of the steppe region of farms, what, without a doubt, It will have a positive effect, especially in those fields, where winter began to winter in a relatively weak state.

In the first half of the third decade of February, a regular cooling, accompanied by a decrease of mean daily air temperature to -5.9 ... -7.4 ° C. On some days of air temperature performance and decreased soil surface respectively to -13,5 ° C and -14,2 °. Soil frozen in Depth 10-15 cm, and its temperature at the depth of node winter wheat tillering decreased to -2.5 ... -4.1 ° C. At the same time, a temperature condition was quite short, and therefore to significant, and even more, significant damage to plants of winter that did not lead. However, not excluded the partial death of the leaf blades of some varieties of winter wheat and, special, barley and winter oilseed rape, what, usually, with diligent care of the crops does not lead to a decrease in plant productivity.

In the second half decade there was an increase of air temperature, which was accompanied by a little precipitation in the form of sleet and drizzle.

Further development of the plants and the formation of their grain production will depend on the recovery time of winter active spring vegetation and timely and accurately carried out nitrogen fertilizing crops. At the termination of the winter in the early stages of the plants develop under moderate temperatures and adequate soil moisture. During this period, enhanced education and development of shoots and secondary root system. Usually, even with a weak development of winter crops in early spring in the fall allows plants to create a full steblestoy, form a relatively strong root system and successfully confront the possible dry weather conditions during the spring and summer growing season.

In case of late renewal of spring vegetation winter quickly exposed to high temperatures and intense light, that inhibits their growth, tillering and rooting processes, It accelerates the development and leads to the formation of low yield.

priority actions, to be taken with the resumption of the spring growing season of winter, It is a survey of crops in order to establish the number of plants per unit area, determining their development and degree of possible damage during hibernation. In this case, you should know, If the plants do not tillered autumn, even complete their preservation in an area only in some years, can provide the yield of about 2,5-3 t / ha. Thinning of crops on 20-25% (reduction in plant stand up 300-350 stalks on 1 m2) It does not guarantee a harvest more 2-2,5 t / ha.

When there are 1 m2 less 150 tillered or 200-250 neraskustivshihsya plants such areas it is advisable reseeded. repairs (overseeding) subject to crops at a density 150-200 tillered plants or 250-300 neraskustivshihsя, as well as the area, where the plants during the growing season renewal are sprouting phase - at least 300 plants / m2.

Well-developed plants, having 3-4 escape, can give 1,5-2 producing stem. To ensure the harvest 3,5-4 t / ha of such plants should be at least 200 pcs. / m2. In seed crops areas can be left with fewer plants.

During the spring survey the state of winter barley, especially in years with unfavorable conditions for wintering, should pay attention to what, often with damage or destruction of above-ground mass of plants tillering node stays alive, and this important crops, as known, It has the ability to quickly restore the vegetative mass, well Cousteau, and then forming a satisfactory yield. But in early spring such area be sure to fertilize with nitrogen fertilizers.

The system of care for winter wheat and other winter crops of grain crops in the spring and summer growing season should be spent on creating an optimal density of productive stalks - 550-600 pcs. / m2, how to better ensure the plant nutrients and moisture, control and compliance satisfactory phytosanitary situation in the fields. Therefore, the purpose of a comprehensive survey of crops, except for the determination of density, phase of development and plant health after hibernation, It should include the definition of the following indicators: weediness (the species and quantity of weed), infestation of plant pests and diseases, availability of nutrients, In particular forms of mineral nitrogen.

Generally, on fallow fields to produce a strong and valuable grain is necessary to make 60-90 kg / ha nitrogen, and after nonfallow predecessors - at least 90-120 kg / ha, and in wet years, when favorable conditions are formed for the assimilation of nitrogen, its dose may be increased to 150 kg / ha depending on the crop conditions.

According entomological surveys, hlebnoy zhuzhelitseyu settled to 10% crop of winter cereals with number 0,5-1,5 ind. / m2. Restoring power phytophage will occur with an increase in average daily temperatures up to + 8-10 ° C. The most active period of harmfulness of ground beetles is expected in the second half of March. The primary measure for preventing damage to crops larvae of the pest is to conduct crop surveys, particularly after stubble precursors, in the presence of 2-3 larvae / m2 recommended insecticide spraying is carried out.

In this way, condition of crops of winter cereal crops and rapeseed after the calendar winter relatively good, but because, if the plant will resume active growth in the early stages, and further hydrothermal conditions will be favorable, there is good reason to make the preliminary forecasts for the formation of a large harvest in the current year, which will not yield the best performance, notes in grain production in recent years.

According to the materials of the National Academy of Agrarian Sciences (Before) Ukraine

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